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LAMPRE Educational (LEdu) is a collection of talks, activities and resources aimed at non-experts to help them better understand the general background, processes, issues and resources available for landslides and triggered landslide events. LEdu is also the potential custom-made educational resources that can be created by LAMPRE, on demand.
The need for education related to landslides and landslide triggered events is everywhere, in all countries. LAMPRE Educational (LEdu) can provide this training, either through existing activities and resources (e.g., via the LAMPRE web page), or through custom made talks, workshops or other material such as learning pamphlets and practicals.
LAMPRE Educational (LEdu) can provide existing resources now, via the LAMPRE web page, or customized educational products and services on landslides, triggered landslide events and other related topics, within weeks to months from the request.
LAMPRE Educational (LEdu) is aimed at non-experts interested in learning more about landslides and triggered landslide events, including the general public, students, teachers, and decision makers.
LAMPRE Educational (LEdu) activities and resources include:
As part of LAMPRE general education, we have been involved with outreach to teachers, students and the general public.
Below are two examples, one a webcast education video, the other an interactive presentation. Both of these are accessible via your web browser.
1. 45' WEBCAST VIDEO. Triggered Landslide Events: Statistics, Implications and Road Network Interactions.
Bruce D. Malamud of the LAMPRE project gives a talk to more than 80 high school teachers, from more than 12 countries, at the EGU annual meeting in 2013. Here, in this video, he talks about some basics of landslides, processes involved in triggered landslide events, the statistics of landslides, interaction of landslides with road networks and hazard assessment of mass wasting. He further discusses some prevention and mitigation measures of mass wasting, and finally shows some demonstrations that students or teachers can do with inexpensive material. The audience of this presentation is to high school teachers, but the information has also been disseminated by LAMPRE (in various forms) to high school students, university students, and university lecturers.
2. INTERACTIVE PRESENTATION. Innovative Techniques for Teaching about Landslides and Triggered Landslide Events
Faith Taylor and Bruce D. Malamud of the LAMPRE project have prepared Interactive Presentation (PREZI poster), presented at the AGU annual meeting in 2014, on techniques that teachers can use to teach about landslides and triggered landslide events.
LAMPRE has developed a Landslide-Road Impact Model (LRIM) to explore different potential scenarios of regional road network disruption by different numbers of landslides. Triggers such as heavy rainfall or earthquakes may cause many landslides across a region within minutes to weeks of the event. Some of these landslides may block the transportation network, making it difficult to move about a region.
The LRIM developed by LAMPRE is applicable at local to regional scales. We have applied the model to medium to high-relief topographic regions susceptible to low-mobility landslides (i.e., not rock falls and debris flows). This LRIM can be applied to any region where triggered landslide events occur and road network, susceptibility and elevation data is available.
The LRIM may be run before, during or after a triggeredlandslide event to simulate the most likely impact upon the road network in terms of number of roads blocked by landslides or number of landslides nearby the roads, and potential resultant road network disruptions.
Civil Protection authorities use LRIM to model scenarios of network impact of different sized triggered landslide events and potential resources that might be needed.
Planning & development authorities use LRIM identify potentially vulnerable road network scenarios and plan appropriate redundancies in the road networks.
Transportation authorities & utility managers use LRIM to model potential overall road distance unavailable in the road network, and resultant disruption, as a result of landslides.
Agricultural & forest agencies use LRIM to model potentially vulnerable road network scenarios in forests.
Scientists use LRIM to simulate the potential impact of landslides, and other types of hazards, on different kinds of infrastructure networks.
LAMPRE prepares LRIM at scales ranging from 1:100,000 (smaller scale) to 1:10,000 (larger scale). LAMPRE needs a landslide susceptibility map (LSMM), a road network map, a digital elevation model (DEM) and knowledge of the landslide statistical distribution (e.g., via LStats). The model takes minutes to days to run, depending on the extent and complexity of the study area.
Malamud et al. (2004) doi: 10.1002/esp.1064
Guzzetti et al. (2003) doi: 10.5194/nhess-3-469-2003
LAMPRE prepares 3D Surface Deformation Models (3DSDMs) exploiting advanced Finite Element Models (FEMs). A FEM is a numerical representation of the stress-strain behaviour of a slope, and can be used to predict the kinematical behaviour of slow moving landslides. To prepare 3DSDMs, LAMPRE combines advanced space-borne DInSAR products, in-situ monitoring data, and geological, geotechnical and groundwater information.
The methods developed by LAMPRE allow preparing 3DSDMs for slow-moving landslides anywhere adequate time-series of surface and sub-surface displacements are available, together with topographic, geological, geotechnical and groundwater information. The methods are applicable to landslides of different sizes, and work best where continuous monitoring devices are available. 3DSDMs prepared by LAMPRE are well suited to predict the temporal evolution of slow-moving landslides in urban and sub-urban areas, and for landslides affecting infrastructures.
LAMPRE can prepare 3DSDMs of slow-moving active landslides in a few weeks, provided that sufficient information of adequate quality is available.
Civil Protection authorities use 3DSDMs to anticipate the behaviour of slow-moving landslides for early warning and improved vulnerability and risk analyses.
Planning & development authorities use 3DSDMs to construct landslide scenarios for improved planning, and to investigate the efficacy of remedial and mitigation measurements.
Transportation authorities & utility managers use 3DSDMs to anticipate the impact of slow-moving landslides on transportation or utility networks.
Agricultural & forest agencies use 3DSDMs to assess the impact of slow-moving landslides on crops and forests.
Scientists use 3DSDMs to understand the kinematics of landslides in a changing climate.
LAMPRE prepares 3DSDMs in a few to several weeks for single slopes or landslides. LAMPRE requires displacement time series of landslides and surface and sub-surface geological, geotechnical and groundwater information. LAMPRE delivers FEM 3DSDMs in the forms of plots, graphs and contour maps.
Tizzani et al. (2010) doi: 10.1029/2010JB007735
Calò et al. (2014) doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.11.003
Lollino et al. (2014) doi: 10.1080/19648189.2014.985851
An event such as prolonged rainfall, an earthquake, or rapid snowmelt may cause many landslides. Typically, most of these landslides will be small in size, some will be medium in size and a few will be very large. Knowing the statistics of landslide size (LStats) is important for landslide hazard and vulnerability modelling, for risk assessment, and for landscape and erosion modelling.
LAMPRE has developed software to determine the statistics of landslide size (LStats). The software can be used anywhere information on the size of the landslides is available. This information can be obtained from a geomorphological landslide inventory , an event landslide inventory, or a seasonal or multitemporal inventory in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The software is most appropriate for analysis of low mobility landslides, and should be used with caution when examining rock falls or debris flows.
LStats can be prepared or updated when a new landslide inventory is prepared after a landslide-triggering event, for example, an intense rainstorm, a rapid snowmelt event, or an earthquake.
Civil Protection authorities use LStats to anticipate the sizes of the landslides caused by an intense or prolonged rainfall, an earthquake, or a rapid snowmelt event.
Planning & development authorities use LStats to anticipate the size of the landslides expected in a territory.
Transportation authorities & utility managers use LStats to evaluate the potential vulnerability to event landslides of transportation or utility network.
Agricultural & forest agencies use LStats to evaluate the potential vulnerability of crops and forests to event landslides.
Scientists use LStats for erosional studies and landscape modelling.
LAMPRE prepares LStats from any landslide map available in digital format for which the size (area, volume) of the individual landslides is known, or can be calculated in a GIS. Analyses can be performed as soon as landslide information is available, and takes minutes to hours. The quality of the LStats depends on the quality and completeness of the landslide inventory.
Malamud et al. (2004) doi: 10.1002/esp.1064
Brunetti et al. (2009) doi: 10.5194/npg-16-179-2009
Rossi et al. (2012) doi: 10.13140/2.1.3280.0969
A landslide susceptibility model and map (LSMM) predict where landslides are expected to occur or be more or less abundant based on terrain conditions, including the local morphological, geological, and land use settings. Using different colours, a landslide susceptibility map shows the predicted levels of landslide susceptibility in a region. LAMPRE has developed specific software to model landslide susceptibility and to produce the associated maps using statistical modelling tools.
Software developed by LAMPRE allows preparing landslide susceptibility models and maps at various geographical scales and for areas ranging from very small (a few slopes) to much larger (entire catchments or regions), provided sufficient geographical information on the location of landslides and on the local morphological, geological and land use setting is available.
Using software developed by LAMPRE, LSMMs can be prepared whenever new landslides or environmental (e.g., morphological, geological, land use) data is available for a region of interest. When a new event inventory map is prepared after a landslide-triggering event, existing LSMMs can be produced.
Civil Protection authorities use LSMMs in landslide regional or national early warning systems, and to improve their response capacity.
Planning & development authorities use LSMMs to identify landslide prone areas and to zone a territory accordingly.
Transportation authorities & utility managers use LSMMs to predict the potential impact of landslides on transportation or utility network, and for improved maintenance strategies.
Agricultural & forest agencies use LSMMs to identify landslide prone areas, for improved agricultural and forest management.
Scientists use LSMMs to predict the expected climate and environmental changes on landslide abundance and activity.
LAMPRE prepares LSMMs at scales ranging from 1:100,000 (smaller scale) to 1:25,000 (larger scale) in periods from hours to days after the landslide inventory and terrain (e.g., morphological, geological, land use) data become available. The quality of the landslide and terrain information controls the quality of the LSMMs. LAMPRE can use independent landslide information (e.g., an event landslide inventory map) to validate the LSMMs.
Guzzetti et al. (2005) doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.06.002
Guzzetti et al. (2006) doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.04.007
Rossi et al. (2010) doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.020
A Landslide Inventory Map (LIM) shows the location, spatial extent and type of landslides in a region. LAMPRE has advanced the methods available to prepare and update LIMs through expert visual interpretation of very-high resolution stereoscopic satellite images.
The methods developed by LAMPRE can be used to prepare a LIM anywhere stereoscopic satellite images of adequate quality are available. The methods work in all landscapes and climatic regions, and are applicable for areas ranging from a few to several hundreds of square kilometres. The methods developed by LAMPRE can be used in combination, or as an alternative, to the traditional methods used by geomorphologists, which are based on the visual interpretation of stereoscopic aerial photographs.
LAMPRE can prepare or update a LIM whenever new stereoscopic satellite imagery becomes available for an area of interest. The time for the preparation or the update of a LIM varies from a few days to several months, depending on the extent and the complexity of the study area. LAMPRE can prepare multi-temporal LIMs by periodically systematically updating the LIM for the same area.
Civil Protection authorities use LIMs in the aftermath of an event for improved rescue and recovery operation.
Planning & development authorities use LIMs to identify areas affected by landslides, and so that dangerous areas can be avoided.
Transportation authorities & utility managers use LIMs to evaluate the impact of landslides on transportation or utility networks.
Agricultural & forest agencies use LIMs to assess the impact of landslides on crops and forests.
Scientists use LIMs for erosional studies and to determine the statistics of landslide areas.
LAMPRE prepares LIMs at scales ranging from 1:25,000 (smaller scale) to 1:10,000 (larger scale) in periods ranging from days to months, depending on the extent and complexity of the study area. To prepare a LIM, LAMPRE needs stereoscopic satellite images or aerial photographs, and delivers the LIM in raster and vector formats.
Galli et al. (2008) doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.09.023
Guzzetti et al. (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.02.001
The study area is located in Umbria, central Italy, where climate is Mediterranean and rainfall occurs mostly from October to December and from March to May. In the region crop out sedimentary rocks pertaining to the Umbria-Marche stratigraphic sequence, Lias to Eocene in age, overlaid by lake and fluvial deposits, lower Pliocene to Quaternary in age, and by fluvial deposits of Recent age.
The study area is located along the northeastern part of Sicily, Southern Italy, in the Peloritani and the Nebrodi ranges. Climate is Mediterranean with hot and dry summers and precipitation falling mostly in the period from October to January. Elevation ranges from sea level to 1847 m. Sedimentary and crystalline rocks predominate, including limestone, dolomite and flysch deposits, Jurassic to Pliocene in age, and crystalline rocks Paleozoic to Tertiary in age.
The island of Majorca (Spain), located in the western Mediterranean, has a variety of different geomorphological domains, most prominently the Tramuntana Range (1,100 km2) in the north-western part of the island. The steep topography of this chain, which is linked to its geological complexity and Mediterranean climate, determines intense slope dynamics with the consequent movements of all categories.
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica
GA n°: 312384
Project type: Small collaborative project
Start date: 01/03/2013
Duration: 24 months
Total budget: 2,488 mln. €
EC funding: 1,964 mln. €
Total effort in person-month: 284
Other info: Visit CORDIS
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement nº 312384. LAMPRE is managed by the Research Executive Agency (REA)